The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles

The Biogenesis of Cellular Organelles The evolution of modern cell biology tools, such as confocal imagingtechniques and advanced electron microscopy methodologies, has allowedfor ever improving structural and functional characterizations of the cell.Such methods complement classical genetics and biochemistry in the ongoingeffort to define cellular science. This is especially apparent in the area oforganelle biology. Studies dating back over 100 years to the present haverevealed the elaborate collection of distinctive membrane-bound cytoplasmicsubcompartments, termed organelles, within the eukaryotic cell and definedtheir roles in mediating numerous specialized functions in cellular physiology.Organelles play an essential role in the cell in large part through ensuring atight regulatory and functional separation of distinct chemical reactions, suchas cellular respiration, and molecular processes, such as protein degradationand DNA replication. Many organelles are common to virtually all cell types(e.g., the nucleus) while others reside only in certain differentiated cells (e.g.,the lysosome-related lytic granules and melanosomes found in cytotoxic Tlymphocytes and melanocytes, respectively). The unique characteristics ofsuch heterogeneous cellular organelles are dictated by their particular biochemicalcomposition and complement of biomolecules.

Authors: Chris MullinsPages: 192     Year: 2007

Tags: chemistry biogenesis biology

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